It’s Valentine’s Day, so what could be better than an article on companion plants, veganic gardening’s happiest partners?
What are companion plants, and how do they fit into vegan gardener Will Bonsall’s “… unified living system whose parts function to the benefit of one another and the whole?”
A veganic garden is much more than plants, soil, and the gardener who tends them. It’s a living, growing community dependent on sun, shade, rain, insects, birds, and animals.
And as a living community, it can’t genuinely flourish without diversity. Companion planting is the science of growing the right combinations of plants to:
- build habitats for beneficial animals and insects
- discourage damaging pests
and replenish the soil with nutrients and microbes that keep the entire system healthy.
Companion plants are fruits, veggies, and herbs that – when growing together – do the work of chemical-based, soil-depleting fertilizers or toxic pesticides and herbicides for you!
The Ancient Genius of Combining Companion Plants
Last November, we visited Colorado’s Mesa Verde National Park, where the Anasazi Pueblo people settled nearly twenty centuries ago.
When Jesse Walter Fewkes excavated their cliffside dwellings in the early 20th century, he uncovered corn, squash, and pumpkin seeds along with farming tools. The Anasazi were one of a long line of indigenous American tribes to practice “Three Sisters” companion planting.
They grew corn, beans, and squash or pumpkin in the same plot – and the result was nothing short of genius:
- The cornstalks serve as supports for the climbing bean vines, while the beans stabilized the stalks in windy weather.
- The nitrogen the beans added to the soil fertilized the following year’s corn crop.
- The low-growing squash plants shaded the ground, discouraging weeds and retaining soil moisture. And their prickly stems and leaves deterred hungry predators.
Finally, after harvesting their crops, the farmers could work the plant debris back into the soil to increase its organic content and improve its structure.
Unlike the monoculture responsible for Big Ag’s horizon-to-horizon corn, wheat, soy, or cotton fields, the Three Sisters method has no symmetry. It looks remarkably wild. And for wild creatures in search of homes, that’s a very good thing!
Creating Habitat with Companion Plants
Every living creature needs shelter, water, and food. One of companion planting’s great rewards is that it will transform your veganic garden into a haven for beneficial birds, bugs, and reptiles.
Not only will they provide chemical-free pest removal, but they’ll also gorge themselves on pollen and nectar – and in the process, help your plants produce fruit, veggies, and flowers. Toss a handful of pebbles in a birdbath, and you’ll have a natural “dock” for bees to quench their thirst as well.
Hedges, ornamental grasses, or blooming perennials create much-appreciated hiding or nesting places. Veganic gardening and companion planting work hand-in-hand to build the diversity every healthy ecosystem needs!
Making Companion Plants Work for You
The indigenous Americans who planted their Three Sisters centuries ago might laugh out loud at learning their technique has given rise to various companion planting forms. The Gardenology encyclopedia lists them as:
- Hedged investment — a variety of plants in the same space improve the odds of having some yield, even if one category encounters catastrophic issues
- Level interaction — plants that grow on many levels in the same place, can provide ground cover or even work as a trellis for another plant
- Nitrogen fixation — plants that fix nitrogen in the ground, making it available to other plants.
- Protective shelter — one plant can serve as a windbreak, or shade from the noonday sun, for another.
However, Gardenology also offers three additional techniques explicitly aimed at attracting “good bugs” and deterring harmful ones:
- Pest suppression — plants that repel insects, plants, or other pests like nematodes or fungi, through chemical means. (Planting basil among your veggies can chase off aphids, mosquitoes, and mites.)
- Positive hosting — attracts or is inhabited by insects or other organisms that benefit plants, as with ladybugs or some “good nematodes.” (Strongly scented herbs such as mint, sage, and rosemary do double duty by drawing good bugs and repelling insect pests.
- Trap Cropping — plants you won’t be harvesting, which draw pests away from the one you will. (For instance, aphids and whiteflies love nasturtiums, slugs love chervil and thrips, and nematodes have a sweet tooth for French marigolds.)
Your choice of companion plants will depend on your choice of crops. Just aim for biodiversity, and you can’t go wrong!
A Companion Plant Chart to Get you Started
Chart revised from Greenthumb Gardener, so you can start planning your own veganic gardening companion plant partnerships!
|Vegetable||Best Companion Plants||Antagonistic Plants||Greenthumb Gardener Notes|
|Asparagus||Carrot, Tomato, Basil, Coriander, Dill, Parsley, Marigold||Garlic, Potato, Onion||Tomatoes repel beetles, help to protect asparagus|
|Beans||Broccoli, Brussels Sprouts, Carrots, Cabbage, Cauliflower, Cucumber, Celery, Corn, Chard, Eggplant, Marigolds, Kale, Peas, Radishes, Potatoes, Strawberries||Beets, Chives, Garlic, Fennel, Onion, Leek, Sunflowers, Shallots||Plant marigolds near beans, it help repel the Mexican bean beetle|
|Beets||Broccoli, Brussel Sprouts, Cabbage, Cauliflower, Chives, Garlic, Onions, Leeks, Lettuce, Kohlrabi, Spinach, Radishes||Tomatoes, Beans||The beets and beans don’t feel good near each other, but your lettuce will do well next to them.|
|Broccoli||Bush Beans, Beet, Basil, Dill, Celery, Carrot, Cucumber, Lettuce, Garlic, Onion, Radish, Spinach, Swiss Chard, Rosemary, Mint, Sage, Thyme, Nasturtium, Marigold||Asparagus, Beans, Cantaloupe, Mustard, Peppers, Pumpkin, Sweet Corn, Watermelon, Strawberry||Aromatic plants help deter harmful insects.|
|Brussels Sprouts||Basil, Beets, Carrots, Dill, Garlic, Onion, Thyme, Mint, Marigold, Nasturtium||Tomato, Strawberry||It’s part of the brassica family; aromatic plants help repel pests (like swede midge, a specialist of brassicas).|
|Cabbage||Bush Beans, Beets, Celery, Chamomile, Onion, Potato, Dill, Mint, Spearmint, Oregano, Rosemary, Sage, Marigold, Nasturtium||Beans, Eggplant, Pepper, Mustard, Tomato, Strawberry||Rosemary helps to repel cabbage fly.|
|Carrots||Beans, Chives, Dill, Garlic, Lettuce, Leek, Onion, Tomato, Rosemary||Dill, Coriander, Parsnip||Onion, leeks, and aromatic herbs like rosemary and sage repel the carrot flies.|
|Cauliflower||Beans, Celery, Chamomile, Spinach, Tomato, Oregano, Rosemary, Sage, Sunflower, Peas||Strawberries, Tomatoes||Plant celery near cabbage – it deters cabbage moth and cabbage butterflies. Mint and oregano are also useful|
|Celery||Bush Beans, Cauliflower, Cabbage, Cosmos, Cucumber, Dill, Leek, Spinach, Snapdragons, Tomato, Marjoram, Daisies, Marigolds, Nasturtiums||Corn, Carrots, Potato||Celery and leeks grown together in a trench seem to do well, as leeks repel many pests; they won’t even lay their eggs.|
|Chives||Basil, Carrots, Kohlrabi, Parsnip, Parsley, Tomato, Marigold, Strawberries||Beans||Grapes also benefit from chives’ ability to repel aphids. Most allums also help keep away rabbits|
|Corn||Beans, Cucumber, Marjoram, Peas, Potatoes, Pumpkin, Squash, Zucchini, Sunflower||Tomato||One of the three sister plants. Beans and peas are legumes; they supply nitrogen.|
|Cucumber||BBeans, Celery, Corn, Dill, Lettuce, Peas, Radish, Nasturtium, Marigold||Tomato, Potato, Sage, Strong Aromatic Herbs (except dill)||Raccoons avoid cucumber, plant near corn|
|Dill||Cabbage, Cucumbers, Corn, Dill, Lettuce, Fennel, Onions||Cilantro, Tomato||Grows well with fennel.|
|Eggplant||Pepper, Potato ,Beans, Marjoram||To protect eggplant from Colorado potato beetle, grow them with beans|
|Kohlrabi||Beets, Cucumber, Nasturtium, Lettuce, Onions, Thyme||Pole Beans, Pepper, Strawberries, Tomato||Helps protect the mustard family vegetables.|
|Leek||Celery, Carrots, Lettuce, Onions||Beans, Peas||Leeks repel carrot flies, they won’t even lay their eggs on the neighbor plant.|
|Lettuce||Beets, Beans, Broccoli, Corn, Carrots, Onions, Radish, Peas, Marigold, Mint, Strawberries||Parsley||Onions repel rabbits. Mints repel slugs.|
|Marigold||Peppers, Brassicas (broccoli, etc), Tomato, Cucurbits (cucumber, etc), and most other plants||Marigolds repel nematodes, so it’s a good idea to plant them on the borders of the garden.|
|Onion||Beets, Chamomile, Carrots, Cabbage, Lettuce, Parsnips, Tomato, Marjoram, Rosemary, Strawberry, Savory||Asparagus, Beans, Peas||Surrounding the gardens with onions (like scallions) will protect the plants from aphids, the carrot fly, and many other pests. They also repel deer, raccoons, and rabbits.|
|Parsley||Asparagus, Beans, Tomato, Rosemary, Radish||Lettuce||Adds vigor to both asparagus and tomatoes.|
|Peas||Brussels Sprouts, Beans, Cabbage, Cauliflower, Cucumbers, Carrots, Celery, Corn, Lettuce, Radishes, Potatoes, Sage, Squash||Alliums (Chives, Garlic, Shallots, Onion)||Provides nitrogen to the soil.|
|Potato||Basil, Beans, Corn, Celery, Marigolds, Garlic, Horseradish, Lettuce, Onions, Peas, Radishes, Spinach||Asparagus, Brussels Sprouts, Broccoli, Carrots, Cauliflower, Cabbage, Cucumbers, Kohlrabi, Eggplant, Melons, Strawberries, Squash, Sunflower, Peppers, Tomatoes, Raspberries||Don’t plant potatoes with tomato, cucumber, and raspberry as these attract harmful pests. Horseradish repels insects and supports disease resistance.|
|Pumpkin||Beans, Corn, Nasturtium, Marigold, Squash||Potato||Grow well with corn.|
|Radish||Allium family (Chives, Garlic, Onion, Leek), Beets, Carrots, Cucumber, Cabbage, Lettuce, Kale, Squash, Spinach||Hyssop (herb)||Radishes attract pests; they are helpful as trap crops.|
|Sage||Beans, Carrots, Cabbage, Peas, Strawberries, Rosemary||Repels cabbage fly and some bean parasites.|
|Spinach||Brassicas family (Brussels Sprouts, Broccoli, Cauliflower, Cabbage, Kohlrabi), Beans, Celery, Eggplant, Lettuce, Leeks, Melons, Potatoes, Peas, Tomatoes, Radishes, Strawberries, Nasturtium||As an early spring vegetable, it does not have many pests.|
|Squash||Beans, Borage, Corn, Dill, Peas, Radish (White Icicle), Nasturtium, Marigolds, Sunflower, Strawberries||Potato||Marigolds act as trap crops – attract pests, and confuse the squash vine borer from laying eggs.|
|Strawberries||Bush Beans, Borage, Caraway, Chives, Lettuce, Spinach, Squash, Onions, Sage||Cabbage Family, and plants susceptible to Verticillium (ie. Eggplant, Tomato, Potato, Peppers)||Borage is an excellent border for strawberry patches.|
|Tomatoes||Asparagus, Basil, Borage, Carrots, Chives, Celery, Garlic, Lettuce, Marigolds, Spinach, Onion, Parsley||Brassicas (Brussels Sprouts, Broccoli, Cauliflower, Cabbage, Kohlrabi), Beets, Corn, Dill, Fennel, Peas, Potatoes, Rosemary, Walnut trees||Basil growing near tomatoes has been reported to improve the yields, enhance flavor (share nutrients) and confuse tomato-eating insects.|
|Turnip||Peas||Mustard, knotweed, avoid rotating after cabbage family||Hairy vetch and turnips make excellent companions.|
|Zucchini||Corn, Nasturtium, Marjoram|